When measuring, one uses an instrument with a calibrated scale. The measuring device can be rigid or adjustable (caliper gauge). When gauging, one compares the shape or a measurement with a gauge that embodies a desired measurement. The gauge is rigid.
In thread cutting, both functions are used. They are used in both main applications.
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Measuring threads with the aid of thread gauges and thread templates
Thread gauges are used to check the quality of a manufactured thread. Threads are standardised and so gauges can be used. Gauges usually have a good side and a reject side. It is marked with a red ring.
Thread templates are used to determine the pitch of a thread. The nominal dimension and the pitch are used to determine a thread. To measure the nominal dimension, you need a caliper gauge.
With the data of the pitch and the nominal diameter, thread tables can be used to determine which thread type and which thread size is involved. Nuts and bolts can be assigned in this way. Even before recutting defective threads, one should know exactly which thread type is to be machined.